Tibetan name: bkra-shis chos-’phel grwa-tshang Mongolian name: Цlzii khutgiin nomiig arwijuulagch
English name: Dashchoimbel monastic school.
Monastic school in the east Dashchoimbel datsan was established as the first Mongolian philosophical school by the 2nd jewtsьndamba khutagt and Manzshir khutagt in 1756 at Doloon Nuur (‘Seven Lakes’, name of a lake in Inner-Mongolia). It was named by the 5th jewtsьndamba khutagt and moved to the Gandan hill in 1837. The philosophical training and practice of the datsan is based on the handbook (igchaa,Tib. yig-cha) by Gьnchin jamiyaan shadaw (Tib. kun-mkhyen 'Jamdbyangs bzhad-pa, 1648-1721). This datsan produced many famous scholars from among the estimated six thousand lamas who have been educated there, such as: Linsrai Gawj Agwaanbaldan (Tib. ngag-dbang dpal-ldan, 1794-1864); khamba nomon khan Agvaankhaidaw (Tib. ngag-dbang mkhas-grub, 1779-1838), who was awarded the rawjambaa (Tib. rab-’byams-pa) degree in Tibet; Damtsigdorj/Damtsagdorj or Bar’ lam/ Bragri lam/ Bragiriin gegeen (Tib. brag-ri bla-ma dam-tshig rdo-rje, 1781-1848); Dandar agramba (1835-1916); Angi Shagdar (1869-1935); and Zawa lam Damdin (Tib. rtsa-ba blama rta-mgrin, 1867-1937). The school’s head bore the title shunlaiw, as in the other monastic schools. According to Sereeter (pp. 57-58.) the main tutelary deity of the temple was Jigjid (Tib. ‘jigs-byed, Skr. Bhairava, epithet of Yamantaka), and its main protector deity was Gombo. Soninbayar mentions (Gandantegchinlen khiid, Shashnii deed surguuliin khurangui tььkh, p. 65.) Sendom (Tib. seng gdong-ma, Skr. Singhamukha, the lion-headed dakini) as well. The following financial units belonged to the temple: Ikh jas, Shiniin naimnii Ganjuuriin jas, Janraisegiin Nьnnain jas, Donchidiin jas, Sanjidiin jas, Datsangiin arawnii Gьnregiin jas, Datsangiin Ganjuuriin jas, Ikh chogiin jas, Mцnkh Erdeniin Ganjuuriin jas, Duiwiin chogiin jas, Megzemiin bьteeliin jas, mцn jio, Dordьwiin jas, Gurawnii Gьnregiin jas, Arwan gurawnii Gьnregiin jas, Dugan bьreesiin jas, Maidariin jas, Mintьgiin nьnnain jas, Mцnkh Dar’ ekhiin jas. The curriculum was divided into 14 classes with each class in the five elementary and four intermediate stages requiring one year of study: the elementary classes covered the study of Pramana, the intermediate classes the topic of Paramita. After nine years study it was possible to take an exam, called domiin damjaa. Then, the lamas continued on to study the four advanced classes, one year for each, covering the Madhyamaka, Abhidharma and a part of the Vinaya. After this, the study of Vinaya, monastic discipline, was studied for a further five to ten years. Those who took a final exam in these special fields of study got the rank of gawj. The names of the 14 classes were the following: elementary studies: khadag (Tib. khadog), shidьw/shidew (Tib. gzhi-sgrub), jumbarai/jьmbri (Tib. rgyu-’bras), yuljin/juljii (Tib. yul-can), dondonju (Tib. don bdun-chu); intermediate studies: ok (gzhung) (Tib.’og-ma), gom 65 (gzhung) (Tib. gong-ma), gawadamba (Tib. skabs-pa dang-po), dom (sdom); advanced: uma sarwa (Tib. dbu-ma gsar-pa), uma ninwa (Tib. dbu-ma rnying-pa), jod (Tib. mdzod), garamba ok (Tib. bka’-rams-pa ‘og-ma); professional level or garamba: garamba gom (Tib. bka’-rams gong-ma). The wooden temple building of Dashchoimbel datsan was situated behind the Gandantegchenlin temple with Gьngaachoilin datsan in its left and Badma yogo datsan in its right side. The datsan was destroyed in 1938. It was rebuilt in 1994 on its original site (see the Current Situation part of this entry).
Gьngaachoilin datsan Baruun datsan
Tibetan name: kun-dga’ chos gling grwa-tshang Mongolian name: Khotol bayasgalant nomiin sьm
English name: Gьngaachoilin monastic school, Monastic school in the west
This datsan was firstly established by the 4th jewtsьndamba khutagt in 1809 as the second philosophical school of the capital. It was named in 1837 by the 5th jewtsьndamba khutagt. The curriculum of the datsan followed the philosophical view of the famous Tibetan scholar, Wanchin Sodnomdagwa (Tib. pan-chen bsod-nams grags-pa, 1478-1554) based on his commentaries, which were used in Losel Ling monastic school of Drepung monastery in Tibet. This philosophical textbook is called Wanchin igchaa (Tib. pan-chen yig-cha) or Losalin igchaa (Tib. blo-gsal-gling yig-cha). During the years it was active the datsan trained three thousand lamas with such eminent scholars as the jewtsьndamba khutagts, Agwaanrinchen, Darwa Pandita (Darwa bandid / Darba bandida Agwaanchoijordondow, 1870-1923) and Zawa lam Damdin (Tib. rtsa-ba bla-ma rta-mgrin, 1867-1937) completing their studies there. According to Sereeter (pp. 59-60.) the main tutelary deity of the temple was Jigjid, while its main protectors were Lkham (Tib. dpal-ldan lha-mo, Skr. Shridevi) and Dorjshьg (Tib. rdo-rje shugs(-ldan)). The curriculum of the school was divided into 16 classes. One year’s study was required for each of the five elementary classes: khadag (Tib. kha-dog), shidьw/shidew (Tib. gzhi sgrub), dogwa oijin (Tib. ldog-pa ngos-’dzin), jumbrai/jumbarai/jьmbri (Tib. rgyu- ’bras), loirog (Tib. blo-rigs) and the four intermediate: uma nimba (Tib. dbu-ma rnying-pa), uma sarwa (Tib. dbu-ma gsar-pa), dulwa (Tib. ‘dul-ba) and garamba ok (Tib. bka’-rams ‘ogma) and more years in the advanced classes garamba gom (bka’-rams gong-ma). Those who successfully took the final exams in these special fields of study got the scholar ranks of gaaramba and gawj. The following financial units belonged to the datsan: Ikh jas, Dashnyam arawnain jas, Mцnkh Ganjuuriin jas, Altan Ganjuuriin jas, Shiniin negen, Shiniin 8-15-nii Ganjuuriin 3 jas, Mцnkh Gьnregiin jas, Shiniin 8-nii, 15-nii, 22-nii Gьnregiin jas, Lkhan-aa demchogiin jas, Domiin damjaanii jas, Jasaa donchidiin jas, Dordьwiin jas, Mцnkh zuliin jas, Mцnkh Tsedewiin jas, Dьdbiin jas, Maaniin jas, Megzemiin bьteeliin jas, Dalai lamiin pogiin jas, Dar’ ekhiin nьnnain jas, Migjid Janraisegiin bьteeliin jas, Tьmet sakhiusnii jas, Buman Sanjidiin jas, Tseder Lkhamiin jas, Jawdanii jas, Jamjigiin jas, Dorjshьg sakhiusnii jas, Jiin Chagchidiin jas, Mintьgiin jas, Sakhiusnii mцnkh zul, shadshim, zed, manjnii 4 jas, Dugan bьreesiin jas. The wooden temple of Gьngaachoilin datsan was situated behind the Gandantegchenlin temple with Dashchoimbel datsan in its right and Lamrim datsan in its left side. 66 The datsan was destroyed in 1938. One old pillar of the old datsan remained standing. It is now surrounded by prayer-wheels and worshipped by believers. The temple was rebuilt on its original site in 2001. (See the Current Situation part of this entry).
Idgaachoinzinlin/Yadgachoinzenlin datsan Dьltimjansьren datsan/ Tsьltim zansьren datsan/ Khoit datsan
Tibetan name: yid-dga’ chos-’dzin gling grwa-tshang, dul-khrims gtsang bsrung yid-dga’ chos-’dzin gling
Mongolian name: Setgeliig bayasgagch nomiig barigch
English name: Idgaachoinzinlin monastic school,
Rear monastic school Idgaachoinzinlin monastic school was established in Gandan as the third and last philosophical school of the capital, next to the building of the Khailan(giin) jas on the initiation of the 8th jewtsьndamba khutagt in 1910. According to Dariimaa (p. 79.), this datsan was first established for the occasion of Khailen (Tib. khas-len, the oath-taking summer retreat period) for the 10,000 fully-ordained lamas of Khьree. It housed the huge golden statues of Tuwaan Zonkhor (Tib. thub-pa’i ?)4 and Ji Yawsras sьm (Tib. rje yab sras gsum) ie Tsongkhapa and his two disciples Khaidьw je (Mongolian Khaidьw je, Tib. mkhas-grub rje, 1385-1438) and Gyaltsaw ke (Mongolian Jaltsaw je, Tib. rgyal-tshab rje, 1364-1432). 1,000 lamas (According to Sereeter 486 lamas, pp. 61-62.) were transferred from Dashchoimbel and Gьngaachoilin philosophical schools to be trained in the new datsan. The school followed the philosophy of the eminent Tibetan scholar Serji jewtsьn Coijijantsan (Tib. ser-gyi rje-btsun chos-kyi rgyal-mtshan, 1469-1546), whose commentaries were the texts used by Sera Jey monastic school (Ser je/Sera je datsan, Tib. se-ra byes grwa-tshang) of Sera monastery in Tibet. Up until 1938 many famous scholars were produced from among one thousand lamas who have studied in this datsan such as Radnaa shunlaiw and gawj Gombojaw, Kharaagiin Dar’ ekh lam (Dar’ ekh lama residing in Kharaa), Цrlььdiin Dawga gawj (Dawga gawj of Цrlььd aimag), Jantsan jorwon, Jambaldorj jorwon, Tseweendorj unzad, Цndцr tunsag nyaraw, Dodikhьь gewsh, Dorj maaramba, Nawaandamba gewsh and so on. The main tutelary deity of the datsan was Damdin Yansan (Tib. rta-mgrin yang-gsang), while the main protector was Taog Choijil (TIB. tha-’og chos-rgyal), one of the Five Kings (Tawan khaan, Tib. sku lnga rgyal-po). Soninbayar also mentions (Gandantegchinlen khiid, Shashnii deed surguuliin khurangui tььkh, p. 65.) Namsrai (Tib. rnam-(thos)-sras, Skr. Vaishravana). Damdin Yansan is a four-faced and six-armed tutelary deity with wings who is embracing his consort, and there is a horse-head in his hair. Padmasambhava worshipped this deity and, as such, he is the main tutelary deity of the Nyingmapa Red Sect temples. Among the three main Gelukpa monasteries of Tibet (Drepung, Ganden and Sera), he is the main tutelary deity in Sera and is worshipped in monastic schools following the commentaries (igchaa, Tib. yig-cha) of Sera. The following financial units belonged to the temple: Ikh jas, Khailan jas, Dьitsengььdiin jas, Mцnkh pogiin jas, Mцnkh Ganjuuriin jas, Mцnkh Altangereliin jas, Mцnkh Tsedewiin jas, Mцnkh Dьdwiin jas, Mцnkh Dorjzodwiin jas, Altan Dorjzodwiin jas, Buman Sanjidiin jas, Megzemiin bьteeliin jas, Mцnkhцlsцn tamganii jas, Buman Tsagaan Dar’ ekhiin jas, Buman Nogoon Dar’ ekhiin jas, Erigdee erinchin domiin damjaanii jas. According to Sereeter (p. 61.) the datsan’s curriculum was divided into 14 classes, which were as follows: elementary: khadag (Tib. kha-dog), jumbarai (Tib. rgyu-’bras), yuljin (Tib. yul-can), dondonju (Tib. don bdun-chu), intermediate: ok (Tib. gzhung ‘og-ma), gom 4 The authors could not identify the origin and meaning of this name. 67 (Tib. gzhung gong-ma), gawshiw (Tib. bka’ bzhi-ba), dom (Tib. sdom); advanced: um sarwa (Tib. dbu-ma gsar-pa), uma ninwa (Tib. dbu-ma rnying-pa), dulwa (Tib.’dul-ba), garamba ok (Tib. bka’-rams ‘og-ma); professional level or garamba gom (Tib. bka’-rams gong-ma). After completing all their studies the lamas could obtain a garamba (Tib. bka’-rams’- pa) degree, one of the highest examinations in a philosophical college. From 1914, every spring, summer and autumn the gawj rank (Tib. dka’-bcu, academic degree in philosophical studies, ‘ten hardships’) could be taken here, from 1916 also domiin damjaa. The wooden building of the datsan, which was covered by golden roof was situated on the right side of Janraiseg temple (Temple of Avalokiteshvara) and was destroyed in 1938. A new building for the datsan was built on approximately the same site in 1991 (see the Current Situation part of this entry).
Lamrim datsan Janchub-Lamrim datsan
Tibetan name: lam-rim grwa-tshang, byang-chub lam-rim grwa-tshang Mongolian name: Mцriin zereg, Bod’ mцriin zereg
English name: Lamrim monastic school
According to Sereeter (p. 71.) Lamrim datsan was founded in 1844 although other dates have been given such as 1841, according to D. Bьrnee, and 1824, according to Oyuunbilig. 50 lamas belonged to the temple. Academic rank could not be obtained in this datsan, with the most talented lamas going to Tibet to take an exam. The wooden building with a gilded golden roof was situated on the left of Gьngaachoilin datsan, within its own fence. The name of the monastic school refers to the most significant text written by Tsongkhapa, called Bod’ mцriin zereg (Tib. Lam-rim chen-mo) which explains the gradual path leading to enlightenment. However, it was also called the ‘Gьrem datsan of Gьngaachoilin datsan’, as this was a specialist temple where protective healing ceremonies were performed. The main deity of the temple was Jigjid, while the main protectors were Gonchoi lkhaa sьm/Gonchoo lkhaa sьm (Tib. mgon chos lham gsum, the summary name for three protectors: Gombo, Choijoo (Tib. chos-rgyal, Skr. Dharmaraja, epithet of Yama and Lkham. Soninbayar mentions (Soninbayar, Sh. (ed.), Gandantegchinlen khiid, Shashnii deed surguuliin khurangui tььkh, p. 65.) only Gombo. The following units belonged to the monastery: Ikh jas, Gьnregiin dьltsengiin jas, Altan Lamrimiin jas, Awidiin Chogiin jas. According to Dashtseren lama about 100 lamas belonged to Lamrim datsan immediately before the temple was destroyed in spring 1938. Today there is a temple called Lamrim datsan on Zanabazar street leading up to Gandan (for information on this see New Temples 4). However, its head, S. Bayantsagaan, claims there is no connection between the new temple and the old Lamrim datsan described above.
Badma yogo/ Badmayogo/ Badamyogo/Badma yoga datsan Sandьwtegchenlin
Tibetan name: padma yo-ga, gsang-sgrub theg-chen-gling Mongolian name: Nuutsiig bьteegch ikh khцlgцnii sьm
English name: Badma yogo monastic school
The 2nd jewtsьndamba khutagt founded a tantric congregation (Jьd datsan, Tib. rgyudpa grwa-tshang or Ag datsan, Tib. sngags) called Dechinsanaglin (Tib. bde-chen gsang68 sngags-gling, ‘eternal bliss, the monastery of secret mantras’) in 1739. It was also called Damdin Yansan because it was established to defend the Buddhist teaching and all sentient beings from harm and obstacles. According to the legend, when Padmasambhava founded Samye monastery in Tibet, he opened the gate of the mandala of Damdin Yansan in order to conquer and convert the evil spirits who were hindering the spreading of the Teaching. Thus this tantric datsan was founded in Mongolia for the same purpose i.e. as a Gьrim datsan (Tib. sku-rim grwa-tshang), where protective healing rituals were performed. The main tutelary deity was Damdin Yansan and the main protector was Jamsran (or Ulaan sakhius, Tib. lcamsring), the Red Protector. Damdin Yansan is a four-faced and six-armed tutelary deity with wings who is embracing his consort, and there is a horse-head in his hair. Padmasambhava worshipped this deity and, as such, he is the main tutelary deity of the Nyingmapa Red Sect temples. The three protectors, Gombo, Choijoo and Namsrai, Damjan/Damjin (Tib. damcan), Damdin Yansan, Tsamba (Tib. tshangs-pa, Skr. Brahma), and Tawaan khaan were also worshipped to clear away the malevolent beings. According to an article published in the conference book of Northern Buddhist Conference on Ecology and Development (p. 304., the author of the article is not indicated), the 4th jewtsьndamba khutagt renamed the temple as Badma Yoga or Badma Yogo datsan in 1806. Fifty specially trained lamas recited and worshipped there. They held ceremonies in honour of Damdin Yansan, the main tutelary deity of the datsan, as well as rituals of Choijin (Tib. chos-skyong, Skr. Dharmapala),5 Jamsran, Tawan khaan, and Nordog Damjin (Tib. norbdag dam-can). Following the ceremonial rules of the Tibetan Sera monastery, the Sanjid molom ceremony was held for seven days in the first spring month, and for 10 days in the middle autumn month. In the middle summer month there were ceremonies called Yansangiin wan (Initiation to Yansan) and Ayuushiin wan (Initiation to Ayuush or Tsewegmed / Tsegmid with) seven continuous days of ceremonies for preparing the sand mandala (dьltson, Tib. rdul-tshon, mandala of colored powder) of these deities. There was a ceremony to Jamsran held in the spring and in the autumn as well. As well as the prescribed cycle of ceremonies, the lamas performed every kind of strong and weak healing ceremonies (Gьrem, Tib. skurim). As, based on the old lama, Jambal’s accounts, who was one of the four shrine keepers (duganch) of the college, Damdinsьren describes (English text pp. 4-5, Mongolian text pp. 683-684.) it was an ‘exorcism college’ (Gьrmiin datsan) with fifty lamas registered in the college who gathered there: “there was a lot of exorcisms performed in the college for the patrons. The lamas took turns in holding these services. They lived on the alms from them.” The main objects of worship in the temple were the guilded statues of Padmasambhava, Yansan, Jamsran, Tьgdem (or Tugdam/Tugdum, Tib. thugs-dam, ‘tutelary deity’ also meaning ‘oath, vow’) of Jamsran, Tawan khaan and Nordog Damjin. The ceremonies were mainly based on the texts written by the 5th Dalai Lama (1617- 1682), such as Yansan yadamiin chogo (Tib. yang-gsang yi-dam-gyi cho-ga, ‘ceremony of Yansan’), Gьn-aa chogo (Tib. sku-lnga cho-ga, ‘ceremony of the Five Kings’), Jamsrangiin dorbьl nirdad (Tib. lcam-sring-gi gtor-’bul gnyer-gtad, ‘balin offering to Jamsran’). The wooden building of the datsan was situated in Gandan monastery behind the Gandantegchenlin temple and on the right side of Dashchoimbel datsan. It was also known as the ‘Gьrem datsan of Dashchoimbel datsan’. According to Sereeter (p. 65.) the golden bronze roof of the temple was financed by a lama called Galsanjamts, who was known as doltson khuwilgaan of Zorigt wangiin khoshuu, Tьsheet khan aimag. Five units belonged to the temple: Ikh jas, Dьltsengiin jas, Sanjidiin jas, Dordьwiin jas, Jasaa Tsedewiin jas. Before 1938 about 50-60 lamas belonged to Badma yogo datsan. The temple was 5 Choijin is the general name of the protector deities. Its mention is strange in this context. 69 destroyed in 1938. The datsan was revived after 1990 in the Geser sьm site. (See the Current Situation section in the entry for Rinchen 914.)
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