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Prehistoric Time on earth divided into three period Stone age, Bronze Age and Iron Age based on technological and genetic advancement. Prehistoric era covers the greatest portion of humanity's time ( roughly 99% of human history) on Earth.

Prehistoric Mongols no stranger to this part of history. Archeologist have found many artifacts related to this time throughout current Mongolia.

Stone Age - Lower Paleolithic (2.6 to 100,000 years)

prehistoric mongols middle paleolithic artifact

The Paleolithic came from Greek word palaios + lithos, 'old stone'.

The Stone age also classified in five divisions Lower, Middle, Upper Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic based on ecological, genetic and technological advancement.

According to mitochondrial(DNA) population genetics study in Lower-Old-Stone-Age (Lower Paleolithic) humans spread from East Africa to the eastwards into Central Asia some 40 millennium ago. From Archeological study, Mongolia has been inhabited for over 800,000 years.

The Tsagaan Agyi also known as WhiteCave locates at Baynlig, Bayanhongor (latitude: 44'42'43.30"N; Longitude:101'10'13.40"E) is the first site found from Mongolia that related to Lower Old Stone Age. Archeologist found variety of vegetation sample as well as trace of human living.

Stone Age - Middle Paleolithic (300,000-30,000 years)

Earth's Ice age started around Middle-Old-Stone-Age. Mongolia has rich collection of sites related to this era. The most studied once are Orhon at Harhorin, Uvur-Hangai, Argalant and Orog Nuur at Bogd, Bayan-Hongor, and Hoid Tsenheriin Agyi at Manhan, Hovd.

Stone Age - Upper Paleolithic (45,000-10,000 years)

The Upper-Old-Stone-Age is the last stage of ice age. Mongolia has also many artifacts related to this era. You can find large animals bone such as wild horse, cow, deer, hirs, arslan zaan, white fox, jangir and temeen hyaruul from province of Selenge, Bulgan, Tuv, Uvur-Hangai,Umne-Gobi, Dorno-Gobi, Suhbaatar and Huvsgul.

mongolia meosolithic stone pics

According to Social Anthropology the main distinction of this era is the appearance of three different classification of human race. In addition to this the era dominated by females and have many female stone artifacts found from Europe and Asia.

Stone Age - Mesolithic (15,000-7,000 years)

The Mesolithic came from Greek word mesos + lithos, 'middle stone'.

The Middle-Stone-Age was the end of Ice age and beginning of our current earth life. All prehistoric animal have died, rain deers migrated to north, many animals and humans migrated to south. Around that time Humans from Central Asia also migrated to North and South America.

Stone Age Mongolia

Artifacts from Mesolithic age shows that wild animals were domesticated around this time. The Moojoon Stone Pictures from Sagil, Uvs province is one of the most studies site you will find in Mongolia.

Stone Age - Neolithic (8000-3000 years)

The Neolithic came from Greek word Neos + lithos, 'new stone'.

In Neolithic era people become more and more settled. People from this time learned to use clay pots, planting wheat and making more fine stone tools.

Mongolia has hundreds of archeological sites related to this era. The biggest site is Zuuhnii neolithic Root located at Bayanlig, Bayan-Hongor province. From this area science found 8,567 items including stone knife, stone hunting utilities, wheat processing utilities, clay items, along with 22 kinds of animal bones. 

Copper Age - Eneolithic (6,000-4,000 years)

The Eneolithic came from Greek word khalkos + lithos, 'copper stone'.

Ancient humans first used copper before using bronze and iron since it was easily accessible. In world history there is a brief period belongs to Eneolithic era. Prehistoric Mongols also passed through this time. You can find many artifacts related to this period from Mania, Umune-Gobi.

The population during copper age has been described as paleomongolid in the east of what is now Mongolia, and as europid in the west.

Bronze Age (6000-3000 years)

The people who lived in this era made items using bronze.

Bronze Age Mongolia

Resent Archeological studies done in central Mongolia scientists found ancient bronze helmets, two people shaped bronze mirror, bronze and bone sharp objects.

The Bronze helmet found from Egiin Gol located at Hutran-Undur, Bulgan province. Some artifacts found from this site can also be tighted to more earier human settlers. For example bone items found from Egiin Gol could be from 10-9th c. BC based on its made and components.

There are about 700 Bronze era Deer Monument across Euro-Asia. These Monuments are about 1-4 meter tall has drawing of deers, horses and others.

Based on study science divided these monuments into three divisions:

1. Mongol-Inner Nature prototype Deer Monument

2. Sayan-Altai animal actual shape Deer Monument

3. Asia-Europe shapeless animal Deer Monument.

The picture here is one from Daagandel, Shiluustei, Zavhan Province.

Iron Age (8th to 3rd c BC)

In the late Iron age time male dominated since the use of military was important part of their life. Many monument and artifacts found in this time dedicated to male heroes and military personnel.

Iron Age Mongolia

As archeological study become more and more advanced we can certainly dig deeper and deeper into our past history.

Although Mongolians have great number of studies done in prehistoric humans, the Prehistoric Sites in Mongolia is one of the least studied places in the world. Only recently people around the world have been exploring these facts and doing some scientific studies.




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